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Lessons

Skeletal Anatomy

An adult human body comprises of 206 bones. The skeletons of adult males and females have some variation, primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and…

Types of Bones

Typically, bones are classified as long, short, flat, sesamoid and irregular. Long Bones These bones typically have an elongated shaft and two expanded ends one on either side of the…

Bone Structure

Bones are vascular living structures, being fed by a network of blood vessels from the circulatory system and nerves from the nervous system. The main features of a long bone…

Bony Landmarks

The Skull • Occipital protuberance – A projection on the external surface of the mid-line occipital bone.         Scapula Acromion process – Located on the lateral part…

The Axial Skeleton

The axial skeleton is the central core of the human body housing and protecting its vital organs. The axial skeleton has two functions. The first it to support and protect…

The Appendicular Skeleton

The appendicular skeleton consists of the girdles and the skeleton of the limbs. The upper (anterior) limbs are attached to the pectoral (shoulder) girdle and the lower (posterior) limbs are…

Joints of the Body

A joint is the point where two or more bones meet. There are three main types of joints; • Fibrous (immovable) • Cartilaginous (partially movable) • Synovial (freely movable) Fibrous…

Tendons and Ligaments

Ligaments Ligaments, are tough fibrous bands of connective tissue that serves to connect bones to bones. A ligament is composed of dense fibrous bundles of collagenous fibres and spindle-shaped cells…

Muscle Anatomy

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Muscles are found within the muscular system, which is the body’s own network of tissues and fibres responsible…

Skeletal Muscle

Muscles move by shortening their length, pulling on tendons, and moving bones closer to each other. One of the bones is pulled towards the other bone, which remains stationary. The…

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

There are five pairs of muscles that form the abdominal wall. The main function of these paired muscles is to form the strong muscular anterior wall of the abdominal cavity.…

Muscles of the Shoulder and Upper Limb

These muscles stabilise the association between the appendicular and axial skeletons, and stabilise and allow movement of the shoulders and upper arms. Muscle Origin Insertion Action   Deltoid Lateral one-third…

Muscles of the Head and Neck

Many muscles are involved in facial expressions, chewing and speaking. Only the main muscles of the neck will be presented. Muscle Origin Insertion Action Anterior Scalene anterior tubercles of the…

Muscles of the Lower Limb and Foot

Muscle Origin Insertion Action   Soleus Posterior surface of head and upper shaft of the fibulaSoleal line of the tibia Calcaneus via the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon Plantar flexes the foot…

Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

The largest muscles of the body are found here, since their function is largely in weight bearing.   Muscle Origin Insertion Action   Tensor Fasciae Latae Anterior part of the…

Muscles of the Trunk

These muscles stabilise the association between the appendicular and axial skeletons. There are six pairs of large muscles in the back, in addition to those forming the posterior abdominal wall.…

Functional Anatomy

It is important to view anatomy from a functional, integrated perspective. The health and fitness professional armed with a thorough understanding of functional anatomy will be better equipped to select…

Anatomical Movement Analysis

Complexity: Standard

The detailed analysis of movement is a complex activity which requires sophisticated equipment. However, the basic analysis of movement can be performed visually. The following can be determined: Joints involved…

Anatomy Test

Length: 120 minutesComplexity: Standard

This test is optional for all part-time and distance learning students. Full-time students must complete this test under exam conditions during class time. The date is established by your facilitator.